祠堂

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Oanghai091 发表于 2021-9-20 08:21:59
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祠堂
  祠堂
  (一)记忆里的祠堂
  老家的老人们经常谈起祠堂,在他们的描述中,祖上建造的祠堂是具有中国传统建筑、传统文化特点的,是很高大上、很气派的。
  祠堂是于清朝道光年间建造的,当时招募了120个木石雕刻、书写绘画的高级专业工匠,花了四年多时间,建成了一座设计精美、宏伟壮观并具有高度历史文化的古建筑。1958年办大食堂,祠堂的建筑和文化遗产遭受部分损毁,1974年在破旧中被全部拆除,整个文化遗产荡然无存。
  一位老人当时17岁,在拆毁祠堂时把一些文字和祠堂格局做了抄录记载,把记录本放在墙缝里保存了下来。从那些记录里可以复原出老家那座祠堂的风貌。
  祠堂占地一千余平米,前面建造一座巍然高大的牌坊,树海读书阁,高四丈,长八丈,牌坊下三道大门中高两低,出大门外全是石刻花纹铸成的坚固石槛,牌坊上面内外各置一道大匾,外匾有“X氏宗祠”四字,民国时期改为&ldquo,树海读书阁;初级小学”四字,内匾书有“万代食福”四字。牌坊两侧为高七尺、长三丈的石围墙,与里面的横房紧密相接,墙面刻有各种生产生活庆祝图案。牌坊的顶端,是用五颜六色的小木方纵横交错套做成三座顶塔。中塔高两塔低,四角翘爪,每支角上挂一铜铃,风吹铃响,余音绕梁。中塔顶用彩色瓷片拼成一座香炉,两边塔顶各拼成一只展翅翱翔的凤凰。牌坊大门往里,是一个长方形的院坝,两边各有横房三间,楼上有厢房走廊,廊顶上是画有精彩图案的天花板。底层横房门侧边各树一栋石碑,记载上十代人的姓氏排名,并注载有二十辈人的字派,上街沿有两座大石狮,石狮背上各橙一根画有滚龙抱柱图案的大柱。
  阶沿上边横挂着几幅大匾,书有“百世其昌”、&ldquo,爱看读书阁;咸正无缺”等匾额,顶棚绘有彩色图案。
  往里进入正殿,又叫祖宗堂,更是宏大开阔。梁上用彩色瓷片拼成的一对鲤鱼,面对面张望着一团锦囊,流光溢彩,生气勃勃。殿堂上横排着三道大匾,分别书有“敬宗效族&rdquo,金霏读书阁;“先祖是皇”“宗姬绍谱”的匾文。
  殿堂正中是高七尺宽一丈的祖龛,又叫神龛,龛上是框架建造式结构,祖龛上两边各橙一根大柱,柱上有凸雕金色对联:敏于事慎于言则过人远矣,金霏读书阁,进以礼退以义唯圣者能之。龛门上边正中订载一个红色金瓜,精彩读书阁,又叫元宝,顶边左右各置一个用樟木雕制的小狮,狮的侧边各雕刻一条长龙,弯弯曲曲,相互张望,形成二龙抢宝的态势,龙的尾端分别雕刻有一支展翅翱翔的凤凰,华闻读书阁,龙尾与凤尾交织重叠,孔子读书阁,但又能分辨。全是穿透式雕刻,祖龛灯火辉煌,烛光闪烁,从雕龙刻凤的穿透里释放出一道道祥光,好像真龙活凤一样。祖龛用四张大石板合成的钱柜专作祭祀烧纸用。龛上经常摆设有香炉、铜磬、祭品。祖龛正中供奉一张最为显著的木牌,又名祖先牌,上面写着“历代招穆”四个大字,其余是密密麻麻的小字,上面记载的全是先故祖宗的名字,还有许多用板栗木制作或雕刻而成的小木牌,上面记载的是后故先辈的名字。祖龛外的殿堂两侧各树一座高八尺宽五尺的大石碑,左边碑顶书“木本水源”四字,树海读书阁,记载的是姓氏起源及湖广填四川的经过。右边碑顶书“昭兹来许”四字,树海读书阁,此碑记载祖先们到此后的发展历程。殿堂里常年香烟缭绕烛灯辉煌,充满了崇敬肃穆的浓郁气氛。
  祠堂侧面有一道坎,铭华读书阁,坎上面建有学堂,有教室数间,办公室、寝室各一间,院坝、梯步皆是石板石条铺就,石围墙上面雕刻有花草人物图案。围墙外大门两边各有一尊高大的石狮。
  老家的祠堂设计合理,建造精美,木石雕刻精致,绘画工艺高超,孔子读书阁,牌匾的书写精到,是历史上方圆百里的建筑极顶,是先人们勤劳智慧的承载。
  (二)祠堂与我
  比起后辈,我算幸运的。小时还见到过祠堂的遗址,其画面有点像是圆明园。
  74年9月,我和同院子的五个小朋友一起发蒙,走进了祖辈修建的学堂。老师要问你几个问题,答对了就可以上学了。周老师没有问我的问题,直接录取了。因为此前我和大一点的学生来过学堂里听过几次课,周老师有一次问了我几个问题,我都答对了,当时欣喜地笑着说:你明年可以来上学了。直接就被收下了,我感觉是一种荣耀。
  走过老水井,有一条直路直通学堂大门,靠山一边便是祠堂。记得外面还有一圈石头围墙,里面是一个空空的长条形坝子,格状的整齐石条是房屋拆毁后残留的屋基,什么牌坊呀、石狮子呀都没有了,只有围墙上那些浮雕栩栩如生,至今尚还记得,有农夫扛着犁头的,有一些人围着桌子像是在议事的,还有高大的树木、飘动的云朵、翱翔的仙鹤。很少人到里面去,我们只是在外面看,似乎从未踏入,因为大人们说那是封建残余,不是好地头。
  学堂门口的两个石狮子,看起来高大威猛,一开始不敢靠近,慢慢地敢去摸他们一下。那头母狮子脚下还有一只可爱的小狮子,我们就经常去摸摸它,摸得那头部都发亮了。狮子口里含着一个圆球,站上底座可以摸得到。圆球是可以转动的,很好玩儿,我常想,那颗球取不出来,又是怎样放进去的呢?小朋友们琢磨了很久,在推动摩挲中终于有了答案,那一定是石匠在狮子嘴里凿出来的。院子里的教室是木房子,粗壮的柱子,厚实的木板墙,还有雕花的窗子。
  可惜周老师没有教我,是郭老师接这一届一年级。周老师教的是二、三年级,那间大教室分成两半,一边是大的学生,有些个子非常高,听说是三年级,二年级的学生坐另一边,周老师先给二年级的讲,再给三年级的讲。一年级的教室是侧房,要小一些,整个屋子都坐满了。郭老师五十多岁了,是一个严厉的老师。早自习迟到了,两分钟写一篇字,有一次罚我写六篇字,下午放学后,好不容易写完了,他说我是乱写,重写一遍,只得忍着肚子饿,从头再来。郭老师经常家访,周围的人都很尊敬他。我不敢马虎,尽量去完成好作业。背书啊,做题啊,大家都抢着去争第一名。他在前面拿着一根竹棍,拍在讲桌上啪啪响。我们排着一排依次把作业本给他,他必要当着面批改,错了是要被竹棍打手板心的。背不了书的,也要挨竹棍的。就在他的严厉的教育下,我成了很优秀的学生,也养成了我在读书生涯中的不敢怠惰。
  那年月没有钟表,大概是鸡叫第三遍天就快亮了。一次鸡提前鸣叫了,我们很多学生都在月光下奔向学校赶早自习,月亮下山了,天又漆黑起来,大家就到操场上玩游戏“甩高高”,用揉得很绵软的泥块同时抛向空中,一个人喊一二三,大家同时抛起来,随后猛跑到屋檐下。谁跑慢了,就会被泥块砸到,那是训练反应和速度的游戏。喧闹声把郭老师惊醒了,他气冲冲把我们训了一通,又罚我们写字。大家垂头丧气,在冷飕飕的空气里默不作声等了两个小时,四方的鸡又才呼应着高叫起来。
  体育课是大家最喜欢的,老师带着我们在操场上做老鹰抓小鸡的游戏,郭老师当母鸡,我们一个接一个牵着衣服后摆,扮老鹰的同学扑了过来,郭老师张开两臂,我们在他后面左右躲闪。谁被抓到了,就去扮老鹰。一节课一转眼就又下课了。我慢慢发现郭老师并不是永远都铁板着脸,特别是做游戏的时候,也就慢慢喜欢上他了。他教我们拍篮球,还要考试,连续拍五下才算合格,否则就要继续练,直到拍上五个,他耐心地让每一个学生都拍会。他会踢毽子,我一直就没有学会,认为那是女孩子们玩的游戏,郭老师就不同,他可以把毽子踢过肩膀,转身再接着踢。
  热天下午放学后,太阳还在半空中,我们就会在路上玩耍,等太阳落山时才回家。祠堂的后面是竹林和高大的柏树,有很多古坟。其中有一座很高大的坟,里面有一个大厅,有石桌石凳,我们经常跑进去躲阴凉。正面是高高的墓碑,层层叠叠,雕刻繁复,有真人般大小的坐像,各种劳动场景,各种生活场景,还有祝寿的场面,一片热闹欢笑。我喜欢那些雕塑,慢慢地看懂了那些画面的意思,勤劳,丰收的喜悦,人丁兴旺,治家有道,是墓主人一生的功绩。因有这座古坟,这里的小地名又叫“坟亭子”。玩得渴了,我们就用菜叶舀起古井的水喝个够。那口井永远都是满满的,不溢不枯,冬天还冒着雾气。
  在祠堂废墟边的学堂里读了两年,三年级就要到大队办公室那边去读了,我依依不舍地离开了那座古老的院落。常常记着那两尊威猛高大的石狮子,记着在祠堂里教书的两位老师,也隐约记得那块祠堂废墟,那围墙上的精致图画。
  后来,我们那个年级,出了两名研究生,是高考以来出的第一批大学生。那年高考,我是全县文科状元。
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FrankJScott 发表于 2021-10-13 03:12:01

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FrankJScott 发表于 7 天前

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